Flourish. Enter CAESAR; ANTONY, for the course; CALPURNIA, PORTIA, DECIUS BRUTUS, CICERO, BRUTUS, CASSIUS, and CASCA; a great crowd. Since their composition four hundred years ago, Shakespeare's plays and poems have Caesar's assassination is just the halfway point of Julius Caesar. We need your donations. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare The Tragedy of Julius Caesar . Triumvir after Caesar's death, later Augustus Caesar, first emperor of Rome. Mark Antony. He loves no plays,. As thou dost, Antony; .

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rasasoflaser.ga Seriously, though, we took the day off to see Caesar, sir, and .. Trumpets play offstage, and then a shout is heard. Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from. Julius Caesar is an excellent choice of reading material for senior high school students. exploration of the play's timeless themes and social issues. One of the.

Shakespeare often employs these puns as a way of illustrating the distance between what is on the surface — apparent meanings — and what meanings lie underneath.

Julius Caesar Short Summary

Though recognizing these puns may be difficult at first, the notes in the far right column point many of them out to you. One of the first things readers usually notice about the language is the use of pronouns. You may need a little time to get used to these changes. You can find the definitions for other words that commonly cause confusion in the glossary column on the right side of each page in this edition. Also, though most of the lines are poetic, do not forget to read complete sentences — move from period to period as well as from line to line.

Iambic pentameter Though Shakespeare sometimes wrote in prose, he wrote most of his plays in poetry, specifically blank verse. Blank verse consists of lines in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Iambic refers to the stress patterns of the line.

An iamb is an element of sound that consists of two beats — the first unstressed da and the second stressed DA. Pentameter has five stressed syllables. This wordplay often takes the forms of double meanings, called puns, where a word can mean more than one thing in a given context.

Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. New York: Longman, Evans, G. Blakemore, ed. The Riverside Shakespeare. Houghton Mifflin Co. Greenblatt, Stephen, ed. The Norton Shakespeare. Norton and Co. Kastan, David Scott, ed. A Companion to Shakespeare. Blackwell, McDonald, Russ. The Bedford Companion to Shakespeare: An Introduction with Documents. Wells, Stanley and Gary Taylor. William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion.

The term renaissance, meaning rebirth, was applied to this period of English history as a way of celebrating what was perceived as the rapid development of art, literature, science, and politics: First, some scholars argue that the term should not be used because women did not share in the advancements of English culture during this time period; their legal status was still below that of men.

Second, other scholars have challenged the basic notion that this period saw a sudden explosion of culture. A rebirth of civilization suggests that the previous period of time was not civilized. Some people use the terms Elizabethan and Jacobean when referring to periods of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

These terms correspond to the reigns of Elizabeth I — and James I — Scholars are now beginning to replace Renaissance with the term Early Modern when referring to this time period, but people still use both terms interchangeably. The term Early Modern recognizes that this period established many of the foundations of our modern culture.

Though critics still disagree about the exact dates of the period, in general, the dates range from to Though his understanding of human nature and relationships seems to apply to our modern lives, we must try to understand the world he lived in so we can better understand his plays. This introduction helps you do just that. Intellectual context In general, people in Early Modern England looked at the universe, the human body, and science very differently from the way we do. Discoveries made during the Early Modern period concerning the universe and the human body provide the basis of modern science.

Cosmology One subject we view very differently than Early Modern thinkers is cosmology. Ptolemy thought that the earth stood at the center of the universe, surrounded by nine concentric rings.

The celestial bodies circled the earth in the following order: The entire system was controlled by the primum mobile, or Prime Mover, which initiated and maintained the movement of the celestial bodies. No one had yet discovered the last three planets in our solar system, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

In , Nicolaus Copernicus published his theory of a sun-based solar system, in which the sun stood at the center and the planets revolved around it. Though this theory appeared prior to X Intro. During the Early Modern period, many people believed that all of creation was organized hierarchically. God existed at the top, followed by the angels, men, women, animals, plants, and rocks.

Because all women were thought to exist below all men on the chain, we can easily imagine the confusion that Elizabeth I caused when she became queen of England.

Though the concept of this hierarchy is a useful one when beginning to study Shakespeare, keep in mind that distinctions in this hierarchical view were not always clear and that we should not reduce all Early Modern thinking to a simple chain.

Elements and humors The belief in a hierarchical scheme of existence created a comforting sense of order and balance that carried over into science as well. People associated these four elements with four qualities of being.

These qualities — hot, cold, moist, and dry — appeared in different combinations in the elements. For example, air was hot and moist; water was cold and moist; earth was cold and dry; and fire was hot and dry. Blood corresponded to air hot and moist , phlegm to water cold and moist , yellow bile to fire hot and dry , and black bile to earth cold and dry.

For example, if someone were diagnosed with an abundance of blood, the physician would bleed the patient using leeches or cutting the skin in order to restore the balance. If dominated by yellow bile or choler , that person was irritable.

The dominance of phlegm led a person to be dull and kind. And if black bile prevailed, he was melancholy or sad. Thus, people of Early Modern England often used the humors to explain behavior and emotional outbursts. In the play Julius Caesar, the humors are referred to on several occasions.

From the Protestant Reformation to the translation of the Bible into English, the Early Modern era is punctuated with events that have greatly influenced modern religious beliefs. They also believed in the primacy of the Bible and advocated giving all people access to reading the Bible. This succession gave Protestant reformers the chance to solidify their break with the Catholic Church. He also wrote the first Book of Common Prayer, adopted in , which was the official text for worship services in England.

Only one of their children, Mary, survived past infancy. Rome denied Bloody Mary Catholics continued to be persecuted until , when the sickly Edward VI died and was succeeded by Mary, his half-sister and the Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon. The reign of Mary witnessed the reversal of religion in England through the restoration of Catholic authority and obedience to Rome.

Thus, in the space of a X Intro. Though Elizabeth reigned in relative peace from until her death in , religion was still a serious concern for her subjects. Many Catholics, who remained loyal to Rome and their church, were persecuted for their beliefs.

At the other end of the spectrum, the Puritans were persecuted for their belief that the Reformation was not complete. The English pejoratively applied the term Puritan to religious groups that wanted to continue purifying the English church by such measures as removing the episcopacy, or the structure of bishops. Translated by William Tyndale in , the first authorized Bible in English, published in , was known as the Great Bible. She allowed Catholics to practice their religion in private as long as they outwardly appeared Anglican and remained loyal to the throne.

Believing in the divine right of kings, she styled herself as being appointed by God to rule England. Known as passive obedience, this doctrine did not allow any opposition even to a tyrannical monarch because God had appointed the king or queen for reasons unknown to His subjects on earth. Parliament, already well established in England, reserved some power, such as the authority to levy taxes, for itself. Both of the monarchs under whom Shakespeare lived had to deal with religious and political dissenters.

A portrait of Elizabeth I by George Gower, ca. As queen, Elizabeth violated and called into question many of the prejudices and practices against women. However, her position did nothing to increase the status of women in England. One of the rhetorical strategies that Elizabeth adopted in order to rule effectively was to separate her position as monarch of England from her natural body — to separate her body politic from her body natural. In addition, throughout her reign, Elizabeth brilliantly negotiated between domestic and foreign factions — some of whom were anxious about a female monarch and wanted her to marry — appeasing both sides without ever committing to one.

She remained unmarried throughout her year reign, partially by styling herself as the Virgin Queen whose purity represented England herself. Her refusal to marry and her habit of hinting and promising marriage with suitors both foreign and domestic helped Elizabeth maintain internal and external peace.

Not marrying allowed her to retain her independence, but it left the succession of the English throne in question. Some historians refer to him as James VI and I. Like Elizabeth, James was a strong believer in the divine right of kings and their absolute authority.

Upon his arrival in London to claim the English throne, James made his plans to unite Scotland and England clear. However, a long-standing history of enmity existed between the two countries. Partially as a result of this history and the influx of Scottish courtiers into English society, anti-Scottish prejudice abounded in England.

As scholars such as Bevington have pointed out, James was less successful than Elizabeth was in negotiating between the different religious and political factions in England.

Although he was a Protestant, he began to have problems with the Puritan sect of the House of Commons, which ultimately led to a rift between the court which also started to have Catholic sympathies and the Parliament. James I commissioned elaborate feasts, masques, and pageants, and in doing so he more than doubled the royal debt.

The primary distinctions between these two classes were ancestry, wealth, and power. Simply put, the aristocrats were the only ones who possessed all three. Aristocrats were born with their wealth, but the growth of trade and the development of skilled professions began to provide wealth for those not born with it.

Shakespeare himself used the wealth gained from the theatre to move into the lower ranks of the aristocracy by securing a coat of arms for his family. Furthermore, women did not generally receive an education and could not enter certain professions, including acting. Instead, society relegated women to the domestic sphere of the home. Shakespeare was not unique in this movement, but not all people received the opportunity to increase their social status. Members of the aristocracy feared this social movement and, as a result, promoted harsh laws of apprenticeship and fashion, restricting certain styles of dress and material.

These laws dictated that only the aristocracy could wear certain articles of clothing, colors, and materials. Instead of remaining the silent, complacent wife, Portia confronts her husband, asking Brutus to treat her as a respected equal by revealing his secrets to her.

She reminds him that she is an honorable and constant woman, strong enough to bear anything her husband may reveal to her. In fact, the family metaphorically corresponded to the state. For example, the husband was the king of his family. People also saw the family itself differently than today, considering apprentices and servants part of the whole family. In the absence of a male heir, some women, such as Queen Elizabeth, did.

But after women married, they lost almost all of their already limited legal rights, such as the right to inherit, to own property, and to sign contracts. In all likelihood, Elizabeth I would have lost much of her power and authority if she married. Families usually possessed limited living space, and even among wealthy families multiple family members tended to share a small number of rooms, suggesting that privacy may not have been important or practical.


Working through the morning, Elizabethans usually had lunch about noon. This midday meal was the primary meal of the day, much like dinner is for modern families. The workday usually ended around sundown or 5: Before an early bedtime, Elizabethans usually ate a light repast and then settled in for a couple of hours of reading if the family members were literate and could bear the high cost of books or socializing.

Infection and disease ran rampant because physicians did not realize the need for antiseptics and sterile equipment. As a result, communicable diseases often spread very rapidly in cities, particularly London.

We now know that the plague was spread by fleas and could not be spread directly from human to human. Without a cure or an understanding of what transmitted the disease, physicians could do nothing to stop the thousands of deaths that resulted from each outbreak.

London life In the sixteenth century, London, though small compared to modern cities, was the largest city of Europe, with a population of about , inhabitants in the city and surrounding suburbs.

London was a crowded city without a sewer system, which facilitated epidemics such as the plague. In addition, crime rates were high in the city due to inefficient law enforcement and the lack of street lighting. Despite these drawbacks, London was the cultural, political, and social heart of England.

Not surprisingly, a young Shakespeare moved to London to begin his professional career. The theatre Most theatres were not actually located within the city of London. These restrictions stemmed from a mistrust of public performances as locations of plague and riotous behavior.

School and teacher resources

Furthermore, because theatre performances took place during the day, they took laborers away from their jobs. Opposition to the theatres also came from Puritans who believed that they fostered immorality. Therefore, theatres moved out of the city, to areas near other sites of restricted activities, such as dog fighting, bear- and bull-baiting, and prostitution.

Despite the move, the theatre was not free from censorship or regulation. In fact, a branch of the government known as the Office of the Revels attempted to ensure that plays did not present politically or socially sensitive material. Prior to each performance, the Master of the Revels would read a complete text of each play, cutting out offending sections or, in some cases, not approving the play for public performance.

The recently reconstructed Globe Theatre. They were usually open-air, relying heavily on natural light and good weather. The rectangular stage extended out into an area that people called the pit — a circular, uncovered area about 70 feet in diameter.

Audience members had two choices when downloading admission to a theatre. Admission to the pit, where the lower classes or groundlings stood for the Shakespeare in Love shows how the interior of the Globe would have appeared. However, indoor theity, a public theatre in Early Modern England could atres, such as the Blackfriars, differed slightly because hold between 2, and 3, people. Because only the wealthy could afford the cost raised about five feet above it, had a covered portion of admission, the public generally considered these called the heavens.

The heavens enclosed theatrical theatres private. A trapdoor in the middle of the stage William Shakespeare and was an example of the type provided theatrical graves for characters such as of outdoor theatre described above.

At each end of the wall before , he had the old theatre dismantled and stood a door for major entrances and exits. Above rebuilt in Southwark, just outside London. The the wall and doors stood a gallery directly above the newly rebuilt Globe opened to audiences in the midstage, reserved for the wealthiest spectators. Actors dle of and some scholars believe that Julius occasionally used this area when a performance called Caesar was the first play to be performed in the new for a difference in height — for example, to repretheatre.

A good example of this type of theatre was the original X Intro. However, theatre companies developed their costumes with great care and expense. These extravagant costumes were the object of much controversy because some aristocrats feared that the actors could use them to disguise their social status on the streets of London.

Young boys whose voices had not reached maturity played female parts. Though historians have managed to reconstruct the appearance of the early modern theatre, such as the recent construction of the Globe in London, much of the information regarding how plays were performed during this era has been lost. Scholars of Early Modern theatre have turned to the scant external and internal stage directions in manuscripts in an effort to find these answers.

Although a hindrance for modern critics and scholars, the lack of detail about Early Modern performances has allowed modern directors and actors a great deal of flexibility and room to be creative.

The printing press If not for the printing press, many Early Modern plays may not have survived until today. For example, a folio required folding the sheet once, a quarto four times, an octavo eight, and so on. Sheets would be printed one side at a time; thus, printers had to simultaneously print multiple nonconsecutive pages. In order to estimate what section of the text would be on each page, the printer would cast off copy.

After the printer made these estimates, compositors would set the type upside down, letter by letter. This process of setting type produced textual errors, some of which a proofreader would catch. When a proofreader found an error, the compositors would fix the piece or pieces of type. Printers called corrections made after printing began stop-press corrections because they literally had to stop the press to fix the error. Because of the high cost of paper, printers would still sell the sheets printed before they made the correction.

Printers placed frames of text in the bed of the printing press and used them to imprint the paper.

They then folded and grouped the sheets of paper into gatherings, after which the pages were ready for sale. The downloader had the option of getting the new play bound. The inconsistent and scant appearance of stage directions, for example, makes it difficult to determine how close this relationship was. Theatre was a collaborative environment. Rather than lament our inability to determine authorship and what exactly Shakespeare wrote, we should work to understand this collaborative nature and learn from it.

Based on the number of stage directions included in the script, the compositors were most likely working from a theatrical prompt book or a copy of that document. Shakespeare wrote his plays for the stage, and the existing published texts reflect the collaborative nature of the theatre as well as the unavoidable changes made during the printing process. From there, a scribe would recopy the play and produce a fair copy. The theatre manager would then copy out and annotate this copy into a playbook what people today call a promptbook.

At this point, scrolls of individual parts were copied out for actors to memorize. Due to the high cost of paper, theatre companies could not afford to provide their actors with a complete copy of the play. The government required the company to send the playbook to the Master of the Revels, the government official who would make any necessary changes or mark any passages considered unacceptable for performance.

Printers could have used any one of these copies to print a play. Works cited For more information regarding Early Modern England, consult the following works: Updated Fourth edition.

Greenblatt, Stephen. The Victorians found a stoic, sympathetic character in Brutus and found Caesar unforgivably weak and tyrannical. The person who committed the first murder, regardless of personal honor or motives, was doomed from the beginning.

Julius Caesar, a play that deals with actual historical events, differs somewhat from the plays that Shakespeare wrote about English history. But Julius Caesar consists of one illegitimate act after another. Caesar overthrows Pompey and damages the republic.

Brutus and the other conspirators plot to assassinate Caesar, mob rule is tolerated, Antony instructs Octavius in Machiavellian ethics and the play ends with Octavius positioning for authority, with civil war imminent.

Blank verse is a form of poetry in iambic pentameter. Each line has ten syllables — five unstressed syllables alternating with five stressed syllables. Occasionally, a word that is usually pronounced as one syllable is accompanied by a grave accent. The accent is an indication that the word should be spoken with two syllables.

During the Renaissance, there was a rekindling of interest in ancient Roman literature and art. Thus, the subject matter was of great interest to Elizabethan audiences.

Shakespeare wrote a total of four plays set in ancient Rome. The play was first performed, and thus, thought to have been written, in and may have been the premier show of the newly rebuilt Globe Theatre. This date is based on the journal of a Swiss traveler, Thomas Platter, who was visiting England between September 18 and October 20, , and attended two plays.

The text of Julius Caesar, as it appears in the Folio, is relatively errorfree and has the reputation of being the least corrupt text printed in the Folio. Because the play is so rich X Intro.

A prompt book is a copy of the text used by the stage manager of a theatre. It is marked with character entrances and exits, blocking, props, and special effects such as offstage shouts, music, or sounds of thunder and lightening. It was reprinted in with minimal changes and again in with the addition of the life of Octavius Caesar.

Because Plutarch was as interested in the moral characteristics of his subjects as he was in the historical facts, Shakespeare found very useful information in the stories that would translate well onto the theatrical stage.

Being the consummate playwright, however, Shakespeare was able to embellish the stories adding compressed action, heightened drama, and powerful speeches as well as internal and external conflict. Performance history The first performance of Julius Caesar occurred in The play was extremely popular with the original audience and Leonard Digges wrote about the enthusiastic audiences for the play as late as the s. There is proof that the play was performed at Whitehall in and , at Saint James in January of and at the Cock Pit in the same year.

The play was performed for Charles I in and remained an audience favorite right up to when the theatres were closed because of the English Civil War.

When Charles II was restored to the throne in , the theatres were reopened. With many changes to the script and alterations to the major characters, Julius Caesar continued to draw audiences into the theatre. Everett Collection From to the character of Brutus took center stage in productions of the play. Famous actors of the time, such as Thomas Betterton, Barton Booth, and James Quin all took their turns playing the character that was being performed as the stoical and dignified hero of the play.

The text was often altered so that Caesar became a frightening tyrant and the character of Antony was restructured to be a freedom fighter, played by such luminaries as Edward Kynaston, Robert Wilks, and William Milward. The play was often cut and rearranged to make the focus of the play a battle between good and evil or ambition and liberty.

During the years of —, Julius Caesar was revived almost every year with performances in London. The play, appealing to the ideals of the early American settlers, was first performed in America on June 1, , in Philadelphia.

An advertisement for the play read: President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by a member of one of the most famous acting families of the time, John Wilkes Booth. Great scenic spectacles that prided themselves on realistic sets, lavish costumes, and huge crowds of people on stage as opposed to focusing on the content of the script being performed dominated the theatre in the early nineteenth century.

Macready, who played at one time or another both Brutus and Cassius, maintained the grandiose style of Kemble and Tree but, seeing the richness of the characters as drawn by Shakespeare, began to play the men as written with both their positive and negative qualities.

Modern producers and directors became aware of the contemporary nature of the themes in Julius Caesar and productions of the twentieth century reflected that discovery.

The crowds have at times become Nazi rallies and audiences have actually been encouraged to participate as members of the mob in several productions.

Criticism The first critics, writing at the end of the seventeenth century, were not kind to Julius Caesar. If Julius Caesar, as written by Shakespeare, was the hero of the play, he was, at best, a deficient hero.

Samuel Johnson exonerated the play in his Preface of and Herman Ulrici, writing in , found a thematic unity to the play never acknowledged before. This led to a renewed interest in the play by critics in the nineteenth century. In the early twentieth century, critics such as M. In the latter part of the twentieth century, the play and its political overtones underwent scrutiny by both the New Historicists and the Cultural Materialists.

Coppelia Kahn in her book, Roman Shakespeare: Warriors, Wounds and Women, gives a very interesting look at the Roman plays, including Julius Caesar, from a feminist perspective. As Shakespearean criticism moves into the twenty-first century, there seems to be a movement towards reexamining Shakespeare in the context in which it was written. Lucius Brutus' servant. Calpurnia Caesar's wife. Octavius Caesar Julius Caesar's nephew and heir.

Portia Brutus' wife. Strato Brutus' servant. Casca A conspirator with Brutus. Soothsayer A fortune-teller who tries to warn Julius Caesar of his fate. Julius Caesar Roman Emperor. Marcus Brutus A Roman senator. A leader of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar. Decius Brutus A conspirator with Brutus. Cinna A conspirator with Brutus. Metullus Cimber A conspirator with Brutus. Trebonius A conspirator with Brutus. Caius Cassius A Roman concerned with Caesar's rise to power. A leader of company against Julius Caesar.

Cinna A poet fatally confused with Cinna the conspirator. Caius Ligarius A conspirator with Brutus.

Julius Caesar Summary & Study Guide Description

Speak once again. Soothsayer Beware the ides of March. Caesar He is a dreamer. Let us leave him. Two tribunes, Marullus and Flavius, chastise the crowd for adoring Caesar and for celebrating as if it were a holiday. Rome, a street. Is this a holiday? What, know you not, Being mechanical, you ought not to walk Upon a labouring day without the sign Of your profession?

Speak, what trade art thou? In most productions, they enter first, with Flavius and Marullus following them. Being mechanical: The cobbler puns throughout his speeches. A stronger term for the Elizabethans than for us today. Marullus Where is thy leather apron and thy rule? What dost thou with thy best apparel on? You, sir, what trade are you? Cobbler Truly sir, in respect of a fine workman, I am but, as you would say, a cobbler. Answer me directly. Cobbler A trade, sir, that I hope I may use with a safe conscience, which is indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles.

Thou naughty knave, what trade? Cobbler Nay, I beseech you sir, be not out with me, yet if thou be out, sir, I can mend you. Mend me, thou saucy fellow? Cobbler Why, sir, cobble you. Cobbler Truly sir, all that I live by is with the awl. When they are in great danger, I recover them. What conquest brings he home? What tributaries follow him to Rome? To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels?

You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things! O you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome! Knew you not Pompey?

Many a time and oft Have you climbed up to walls and battlements, To towers and windows, yea, to chimney tops, Your infants in your arms, and there have sat The livelong day, with patient expectation, To see great Pompey pass the streets of Rome. And when you saw his chariot but appear, Have you not made an universal shout, That Tiber trembled underneath her banks To hear the replication of your sounds Made in her concave shores?

And do you now put-on your best attire? And do you now cull out a holiday? Be gone!

Run to your houses, fall upon your knees, Pray to the gods to intermit the plague That needs must light on this ingratitude. Flavius Go, go, good countrymen, and for this fault Assemble all the poor men of your sort; The cobbler continues to have verbal fun at the expense of Flavius and Marullus. Cull out: This is meant ironically, since the artisans could not choose their own holidays. Why dost thou lead these men about the streets?

Cobbler Truly sir, to wear out their shoes, to get myself into more work. But indeed sir, we make holiday to see Caesar and to rejoice in his triumph. They vanish tongue-tied in their guiltiness. Go you down that way towards the Capitol; This way will I. Disrobe the images If you do find them decked with ceremonies.

Marullus May we do so? You know it is the feast of Lupercal. Flavius It is no matter. So do you too, where you perceive them thick. The crowd of revelers is happy to have a day away from their usual tasks and, because the day is considered a high festival, plenty of government-supplied food and drink is available for all. The Lupercalian holiday, an ancient rite of both purgation and fertility, honored the gods Lupercus and Faunus as well as the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.

It seems appropriate that Shakespeare chose this particular feast as the setting for the return of Julius Caesar to Rome. Historically, Caesar returned from Spain in October of 45 B.

The merriment of the Roman people is short-lived, however, as the scene is quickly broken up by the intrusion of two Roman Tribunes, Marullus and Flavius. The two men insult the crowd and admonish them for being idle on a workday. Shakespeare often used Elizabethan references in his plays, regardless of the actual timeframe in which the story was taking place, as a way of making his work more accessible to his audience.

This small-scale conflict will be reflected in the next scene when the full-blown conspiracy against Caesar begins to take shape. A relief of Romulus and Remus, from the 1st century, A.

There were no towers or chimneys in ancient Rome, but these anachronisms, chronologically misplaced events, words or details, bring the play into alignment with the experiences of the audience for whom the play was written. This image illustrates a theme in Julius Caesar, that blood begets blood. Shakespeare wrote the majority of his plays in blank verse, but he often changed from verse to prose to indicate the social status of a character.

In this scene, the tribunes speak verse and the commoners use prose.

In a delightful bit of wordplay, the Carpenter and the Cobbler frustrate the Tribunes with their evasive puns and bawdy innuendoes. Puns, a play on words that are spelled or sound the same but have different meanings, have often been called the lowest form of humor, but Elizabethan audiences delighted in them. In general, the crowd is content with the harmony and abundance in their lives and is more concerned with parties than with politics. The conflict between the factions of commoner and official serves two dramatic functions.

First, Shakespeare puts the central conflict of the play into place. The birth of Julius Caesar. Left behind are two men, Brutus and Cassius. While Brutus and Cassius are having this conversation, shouts are heard from offstage. Antony has offered the crown to Caesar and he has refused it in a ploy to make the people of Rome beg him to take the crown. Instead, the people cheer his decision and Caesar is forced to reject the crown a total of three times.

The anger he must suppress causes Caesar to suffer an epileptic seizure. The two men agree to meet at a later time to discuss the matter more fully.

Rome, a public place. Caesar Calpurnia. Casca Peace, ho! Caesar speaks. Calpurnia Here, my lord. On the day of the assassination, Caesar plans to stay home at the urging of his wife, Calphurnia.

A conspirator, Decius Brutus, persuades him to go to the Senate with the other conspirators and his friend, Mark Antony. At the Senate, the conspirators stab Caesar to death. Antony uses a funeral oration to turn the citizens of Rome against them. Brutus and Cassius escape as Antony joins forces with Octavius Caesar. Encamped with their armies, Brutus and Cassius quarrel, then agree to march on Antony and Octavius.

People hold him in such high esteem that an official named Mark Antony offers Caesar the crown that would make him king. The men say they are acting out of their love for Rome. They say that Caesar has become so ambitious that he will make slaves of them all. Caesar receives a warning that something bad will happen on the ides of March. Calpurnia pleads with him and says that he can tell everyone that he is staying home just to satisfy her.

One of the conspirators, Decius, arrives. He agrees to take the message to the Senate but asks Caesar for an explanation.Caesar defies orders and returns to Rome ahead of his legions, violating the law that prevented generals from marching with armies beyond the Rubicon.

Why are you breathless? The play reveals no more than a brief hesitation: the Republic was above personal feelings. Second Commoner Truly, sir, to wear out their shoes, to get myself into more work. But never till to-night, never till now, Did I go through a tempest dropping fire. Script of Julius Caesar a play by William Shakespeare. The picture is that of a deer, or hart, hemmed in by the hounds. Antony uses a funeral oration to turn the citizens of Rome against them.